# Syllabus for entrance exam CCTET-2012

here you will find the complete syllabus for the CCTET-2012 entrance exam. In the syllabus you will find the all parts and details of physics, chemistry, mathematics and biology.So to get the complete syllabus for the CCTET-2012 please read continue

here you will find the complete syllabus of the All India Entrance Examination **CCTET-2012** conducted by the University of Rajasthan, Jaipur on June 22, 2012

## SECTION – A PHYSICS

UNIT 1: PHYSICS AND MEASUREMENT

Physics, technology and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units. Least count, accuracy

and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement, Dimensions of Physical

quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

UNIT 2: KINEMATICS

Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform

and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity Uniformly accelerated

motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion. Scalars

and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit

Vector, Resolution of a Vector. Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform

Circular Motion.

UNIT 3: LAWS OF MOTION

Force and Inertia, Newton's First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton's Second Law of motion;

Impulse; Newton's Third Law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its

applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces.

Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.

Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications.

UNIT 4: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, workenergy

theorem, power.

Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and

nonconservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

UNIT 5: ROTATIONAL MOTION

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of

rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular

momentum and its applications; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of

inertia for simple

geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Rigid body

rotation, equations of rotational motion.

UNIT 6: GRAVITATION

The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and

depth. Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential.

Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.

UNIT 7: PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's Law, Young's modulus, bulk

modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications.

Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number.

Bernoulli's principle and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact,

application of surface tension - drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal

expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat

transferconduction, convection and radiation, Newton's law of cooling.

UNIT 8: THERMODYNAMICS

Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of temperature. Heat, work and

internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and

irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency.

UNIT 9: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work doneon compressing a gas.Kinetic theory of gases -

assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature: rms speed of gas

molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy,applications to specific heat

capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro's number.

UNIT 10: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES

Periodic motion - period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.

Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring -restoring force

and force constant; energy in S.H.M. - kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum -

derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance.

Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation

for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Standing

waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect

in sound

UNIT 11: ELECTROSTATICS

Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-forces between two point charges,

forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field

due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.

Electric flux, Gauss's law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged

straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.

Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges;

Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an

electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of

capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without

dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.

UNIT 12: CURRRENT ELECTRICITY

Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm's law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials,

V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical

resistivity, Colour code for resistors;

Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.

Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells

in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, Metre

bridge. Potentiometer - principle and its applications.

UNIT 13: MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM

Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its

applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving charge

in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a

uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of

ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil

galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent

solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferromagnetic

substances.

Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent

magnets.

UNIT 14: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's law, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents.

Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/

voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC

circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

UNIT 15: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic

waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays).

Applications of e.m. waves.

UNIT 16: OPTICS

Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal

reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula,

Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and

Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifyingpowers.

Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens' principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using

Huygen's principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe

width. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of

microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster's law,

uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.

UNIT 17: DUAL NATURE OF MATTER ANDRADIATION

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's

photoelectric equation; particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de

Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.

UNIT 18: ATOMS AND NUCLEI

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels,

hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars;

isotones. Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive

decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with

mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

UNIT 19: ELECTRONIC DEVICES

Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and

reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar

cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor,

transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier

(common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

Transistor as a switch.

UNIT 20: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation,

Need for modulation, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth

of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only).

## SECTION: B CHEMISTRY

UNIT 1: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY

Matter and its nature, Dalton's atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and

compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and

accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination;

Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition,

empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.

UNIT 2: STATES OF MATTER

Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.

Gaseous State:

Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws - Boyle's law, Charle's law, Graham's law of diffusion,

Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal

gas equation; Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square

and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor

and van der Waals equation.

Liquid State:

Properties of liquids - vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on

them (qualitative treatment only).

Solid State:

Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids,

amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg's Law and its

applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations

involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric

properties.

UNIT 3: ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic

radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its

postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits,

limitations of Bohr's model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg

uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model

of atom, its important features, ?? and ??2, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave

functions; Variation of ?? and ??2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers

(principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of

s, p and d - orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals -

aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of

elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.

UNIT 4: CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCURE

Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.

Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation

of lattice enthalpy.

Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan's rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell

Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.

Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory - Its important features,

concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.

Molecular Orbital Theory - Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding,

antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear

diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.

Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.

UNIT 5: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS

Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties,

state functions, types of processes.

First law of thermodynamics - Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity,

molar heat capacity; Hess's law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation,

combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and

solution.

Second law of thermodynamics; Spontaneity of processes; DS of the universe and DG of the

system as criteria for spontaneity, Dgo (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.

UNIT 6: SOLUTIONS

Different methods for expressing concentration of solution - molality, molarity, mole fraction,

percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult's Law - Ideal and

non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure -composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions;

Colligative properties of dilute solutions - relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of

freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular

mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van't Hoff factor and its

significance.

UNIT 7: EQUILIBRIUM

Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.

Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid - gas and solid - gas equilibria, Henry's

law, general characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes.

Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp

and Kc) and their significance, significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibria, factors

affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier's

principle.

Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of

acids and bases (Arrhenius, Br??nsted - Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid - base

equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale,

common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts

and solubility products, buffer solutions.

UNIT 8: REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for

assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.

Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar

conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch's law and its applications.

Electrochemical cells - Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode

potentials including standard electrode potential, half - cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell

and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and

Gibbs' energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.

UNIT 9 : CHEMICAL KINETICS

Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration,

temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of

reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order

reactions, their characteristics and half - lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions -Arrhenius

theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions

(no derivation).

UNIT-10 : SURFACE CHEMISTRY

Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption

of gases on solids - Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.

Colloidal state - distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions,

classification of colloids - lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated

colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids -Tyndall effect, Brownian movement,

electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.

UNIT 11: CLASSIFICATON OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES

Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic

trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain

enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.

UNIT 12: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF METALS

Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of

metals - concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special

reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles

involved in the extraction of metals.

UNIT 13: HYDROGEN

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen;

Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and

uses of hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen as a fuel.

UNIT 14: S - BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)

Group - 1 and 2 Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical

properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal

relationships.

Preparation and properties of some important compounds - sodium carbonate and sodium

hydroxide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance

of Na, K, Mg and Ca.

UNIT 15: P - BLOCK ELEMENTS

Group - 13 to Group 18 Elements

General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical

properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first

element in each group.

Groupwise study of the p - block elements

Group - 13

Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; properties of boric acid, diborane, boron

trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.

Group - 14

Allotropes of carbon, tendency for catenation; Structure & properties of silicates, and

zeolites.

Group - 15

Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus;

Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus

halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus.

Group - 16

Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur;

Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial

preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.

Group - 17

Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen

halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.

Group -18

Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of

xenon.

UNIT 16: d - and f - BLOCK ELEMENTS

Transition Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in

properties of the first row transition elements - physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation

states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation,

interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2 Cr2 O7 and

KMnO4.

Inner Transition Elements

Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid

contraction.

Actinoids - Electronic configuration and oxidation states.

UNIT 17: CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS

Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner's theory; ligands, co-ordination number,

denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism;

Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic

properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals

and in biological systems).

UNIT 18: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

Environmental pollution - Atmospheric, water and soil.

Atmospheric pollution - Tropospheric and Stratospheric

Tropospheric pollutants - Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur,

hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global

warming; Acid rain;

Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and

prevention.

Stratospheric pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer - its

mechanism and effects.

Water Pollution - Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and

chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.

Soil pollution - Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides), their

harmful effects and prevention.

Strategies to control environmental pollution.

UNIT 19: PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Purification - Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography -

principles and their applications.

Qualitative analysis - Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.

Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) - Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens,

sulphur, phosphorus.

Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic

quantitative analysis.

UNIT 20: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p); Classification of

organic compounds based on functional groups: - C = C - , - C h C - and those containing

halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism - structural and

stereoisomerism.

Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)

Covalent bond fission - Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions;

stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.

Electronic displacement in a covalent bond

- Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.

UNIT 21: HYDROCARBONS

Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and

reactions.

Alkanes - Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections(of ethane);

Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.

Alkenes - Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen,

halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff's and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and

polymerization.

Alkynes - Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides;

Polymerization.

Aromatic hydrocarbons- Nomenclature, benzene- structure and aromaticity;

Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel - Craft's alkylation and

acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene.

UNIT 22: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING HALOGENS

General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of

substitution reactions.

Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform & iodoform.

UNIT 23: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS

Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.

Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and

sulphonation, Reimer - Tiemann reaction.

Ethers: Structure.

Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group;Nucleophilic addition to >C=O

group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as - Nucleophilic

addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives),

Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of - hydrogen,

aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between

aldehydes and Ketones.

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

Acidic strength and factors affecting it.

UNIT 24: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of

primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.

Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

UNIT 25: POLYMERS

General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerizationaddition

and condensation, copolymerization; Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization;

some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses - polythene, nylon,

polyester and bakelite.

UNIT 26: BIOMOLECULES

General introduction and importance of biomolecules.

CARBOHYDRATES - Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and

fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose and maltose).

PROTEINS - Elementary Idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides;

Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation

of proteins, enzymes.

VITAMINS - Classification and functions.

NUCLEIC ACIDS - Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.

UNIT 27: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Chemicals in medicines - Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,

antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins- their meaning and

common examples.

Chemicals in food- Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents- common examples.

Cleansing agents - Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

## SECTION- C MATHEMATICS

UNIT 1 : SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS:

Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic

properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations, functions;. one-one,

into and onto functions, composition of functions.

UNIT 2 : COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS:

Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form

a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers,

modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex

number, triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their

solutions. Relation between roots and co-efficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic

equations with given roots.

UNIT 3 : MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS:

Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and

three. Properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using

determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and

elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in

two or three variables using determinants and matrices.

UNIT 4 : PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS:

Fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as

selection, Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r), simple applications.

UNIT 5 : MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION:

Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications.

UNIT 6 : BINOMIAL THEOREM AND ITS SIMPLE APPLICATIONS:

Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term, properties of

Binomial coefficients and simple applications.

UNIT 7 : SEQUENCES AND SERIES:

Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two

given numbers. Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n terms of special series: S n, S n2,

Sn3. Arithmetico - Geometric progression.

UNIT 8 : LIMIT, CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY:

Real-valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic

and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity

and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two

functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential,

composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean

Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonicincreasing

and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable,

tangents and normals.

UNIT 9 : INTEGRAL CALCULUS:

Integral as an anti - derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric,

exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions.

Integration using trigonometric identities.

Evaluation of simple integrals of the type

Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Properties of definite integrals.

Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in

standard form.

UNIT 10: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS:

Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations.

Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of

homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type: dy+ p (x) y = q (x) dx

UNIT 11: CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY:

Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates 10 in a plane, distance formula, section formula,

locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines,

intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.

Straight lines

Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines,

conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and

external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and

circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of

two lines.

Circles, conic sections

Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and

centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a

line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle,

equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and

hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.

UNIT 12: THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY:

Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and

direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines.

Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane

in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.

UNIT 13: VECTOR ALGEBRA:

Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and

three dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product.

UNIT 14: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY:

Measures of Dispersion: Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data

calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.

Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability,

Baye's theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial

distribution.

UNIT 15: TRIGONOMETRY:

Trigonometrical identities and equations. Trigonometrical functions. Inverse trigonometrical

functions and their properties. Heights and Distances.

UNIT 16: MATHEMATICAL REASONING:

Statements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding of

tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositive.

## Section D: BIOLOGY

Unit : 1 Diversity in Living World

Biology - its meaning and relevance to mankind

What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids (Botanical gardens, herbaria, museums,

zoological parks); Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.

Introductory classification of living organisms (Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom

system); Major groups of each kingdom alongwith their salient features (Monera, including

Archaebacteria and Cyanobacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia); Viruses; Lichens

Plant kingdom - Salient features of major groups (Algae to Angiosperms);

Animal kingdom - Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class

level.

Unit : 2

Unit : 3

Unit : 4

Unit : 5

Cell : The Unit of Life ; Structure and Function

Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus/Dictyosome,

Lysosomes, Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella;

Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.

Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal

cells. Cell cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.

Biomolecules - Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.

Enzymes - Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.

Genetics and Evolution

Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete

dominance; Co-dominance; Complementary genes; Multiple alleles;

Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of hemophilia and blood groups in humans.

DNA -its organization and replication; Transcription and Translation; Gene expression and

regulation; DNA fingerprinting.

Theories and evidences of evolution, including modern Darwinism.

Structure and Function - Plants

Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants;

Anatomy and function of root, stem(including modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower

(including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types

of fruit; Secondary growth; Absorption and movement of water (including diffusion,osmosis

and water relations of cell) and of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration and

gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal movement.

Mineral nutrition - Macro- and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders;

Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.

Photosynthesis - Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; Various

pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors .

Respiration - Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport

system; Energy relations.

Structure and Function - Animals Tissues;

Elementary knowledge of morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems of

earthworm, cockroach and frog.

Human Physiology - Digestive system - organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system

- organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases. Body fluids and circulation - Blood,

lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery

diseases.

Excretion system - Urine formation, regulation of kidney function

Locomotion and movement - Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.

Control and co-ordination - Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of

neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands;

Mechanism of hormone action.

Unit : 6

Unit : 7

Unit : 8

Unit : 9

Unit : 10

Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants

Asexual methods of reproduction; Sexual Reproduction - Development of male and female

gametophytes; Pollination (Types and agents); Fertilization; Development of embryo,

endosperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and apomixis).

Growth and Movement - Growth phases; Types of growth regulators and their role in seed

dormancy, germination and movement; Apical dominance; Senescence; Abscission; Photoperiodism;

Vernalisation; Various types of movements.

Reproduction and Development in Humans

Male and female reproductive systems; Menstrual cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation;

Implantation; Embryo development; Pregnancy and parturition; Birth control and contraception.

Ecology and Environment

Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.

Ecological levels of organization (organism to biosphere); Characteristics of Species,

Population, Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and Climax.

Ecosystem - Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web;

Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.

Ecological adaptations - Structural and physiological features in plants and animals of aquatic

and desert habitats.

Biodiversity - Meaning, types and conservation strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks

and Sanctuaries)

Environmental Issues - Air and Water Pollution (sources and major pollutants); Global warming

and Climate change; Ozonedepletion; Noise pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of

pollution control (including an idea of bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction of species (Hot

Spots).

Biology and Human Welfare

Animal husbandry - Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries; Major animal diseases and their control.

Pathogens of major communicable diseases of humans caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses,

protozoans and helminths, and their control.

Cancer; AIDS.

Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;

Basic concepts of immunology.

Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop improvement.

Biofertilisers (green manure, symbiotic and free-living nitrogen-fixing microbes, mycorrhizae);

Biopesticides (micro-organisms as biocontrol agents for pests and pathogens); Bioherbicides;

Microorganisms as pathogens of plant diseases with special reference to rust and smut of

wheat, bacterial leaf blight of rice, late blight of potato, bean mosaic, and root - knot of

vegetables.

Bioenergy - Hydrocarbon - rich plants as substitute of fossil fuels.

Biotechnology and its Applications

Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;

Microbial technology in food processing, industrial production (alcohol, acids, enzymes,

antibiotics), sewage treatment and energy generation.

Steps in recombinant DNA technology - restriction enzymes, DNA insertion by vectors and

other methods, regeneration of recombinants.

Applications of R-DNA technology. In human health -Production of Insulin, Vaccines and

Growth hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy. In Industry - Production of expensive

enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses. In Agriculture - GM crops by transfer

of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pest-resistance including Bt crops.