Syllabus for entrance exam CCTET-2012


here you will find the complete syllabus for the CCTET-2012 entrance exam. In the syllabus you will find the all parts and details of physics, chemistry, mathematics and biology.So to get the complete syllabus for the CCTET-2012 please read continue

here you will find the complete syllabus of the All India Entrance Examination CCTET-2012 conducted by the University of Rajasthan, Jaipur on June 22, 2012

SECTION – A PHYSICS



UNIT 1: PHYSICS AND MEASUREMENT
Physics, technology and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units. Least count, accuracy
and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement, Dimensions of Physical
quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
UNIT 2: KINEMATICS
Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform
and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity Uniformly accelerated
motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion. Scalars
and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit
Vector, Resolution of a Vector. Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform
Circular Motion.
UNIT 3: LAWS OF MOTION
Force and Inertia, Newton's First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton's Second Law of motion;
Impulse; Newton's Third Law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its
applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications.
UNIT 4: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, workenergy
theorem, power.
Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and
nonconservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
UNIT 5: ROTATIONAL MOTION
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of
rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular
momentum and its applications; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of
inertia for simple
geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Rigid body
rotation, equations of rotational motion.
UNIT 6: GRAVITATION
The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and
depth. Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential.
Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.
UNIT 7: PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's Law, Young's modulus, bulk
modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications.
Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number.
Bernoulli's principle and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact,
application of surface tension - drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal
expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat
transferconduction, convection and radiation, Newton's law of cooling.
UNIT 8: THERMODYNAMICS
Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of temperature. Heat, work and
internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and
irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency.
UNIT 9: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work doneon compressing a gas.Kinetic theory of gases -
assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature: rms speed of gas
molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy,applications to specific heat
capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro's number.
UNIT 10: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES
Periodic motion - period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.
Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring -restoring force
and force constant; energy in S.H.M. - kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum -
derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance.
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation
for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Standing
waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect
in sound
UNIT 11: ELECTROSTATICS
Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-forces between two point charges,
forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field
due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
Electric flux, Gauss's law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged
straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.
Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges;
Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an
electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of
capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without
dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.
UNIT 12: CURRRENT ELECTRICITY
Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm's law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials,
V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical
resistivity, Colour code for resistors;
Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.
Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells
in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, Metre
bridge. Potentiometer - principle and its applications.
UNIT 13: MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM
Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its
applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving charge
in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a
uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of
ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil
galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent
solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferromagnetic
substances.
Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent
magnets.
UNIT 14: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's law, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents.
Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/
voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC
circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.
UNIT 15: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic
waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays).
Applications of e.m. waves.
UNIT 16: OPTICS
Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal
reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula,
Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and
Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifyingpowers.
Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens' principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using
Huygen's principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe
width. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of
microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster's law,
uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.
UNIT 17: DUAL NATURE OF MATTER ANDRADIATION
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's
photoelectric equation; particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de
Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.
UNIT 18: ATOMS AND NUCLEI
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels,
hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars;
isotones. Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive
decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with
mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
UNIT 19: ELECTRONIC DEVICES
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and
reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar
cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor,
transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier
(common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
Transistor as a switch.
UNIT 20: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation,
Need for modulation, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth
of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only).


SECTION: B CHEMISTRY


UNIT 1: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY
Matter and its nature, Dalton's atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and
compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and
accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination;
Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition,
empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.
UNIT 2: STATES OF MATTER
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Gaseous State:
Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws - Boyle's law, Charle's law, Graham's law of diffusion,
Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal
gas equation; Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square
and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor
and van der Waals equation.
Liquid State:
Properties of liquids - vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on
them (qualitative treatment only).
Solid State:
Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids,
amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg's Law and its
applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations
involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric
properties.
UNIT 3: ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic
radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its
postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits,
limitations of Bohr's model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg
uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model
of atom, its important features, ?? and ??2, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave
functions; Variation of ?? and ??2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers
(principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of
s, p and d - orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals -
aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of
elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
UNIT 4: CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCURE
Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation
of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan's rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell
Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory - Its important features,
concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.
Molecular Orbital Theory - Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding,
antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear
diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.
UNIT 5: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties,
state functions, types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics - Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity,
molar heat capacity; Hess's law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation,
combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and
solution.
Second law of thermodynamics; Spontaneity of processes; DS of the universe and DG of the
system as criteria for spontaneity, Dgo (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.
UNIT 6: SOLUTIONS
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution - molality, molarity, mole fraction,
percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult's Law - Ideal and
non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure -composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions;
Colligative properties of dilute solutions - relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of
freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular
mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van't Hoff factor and its
significance.
UNIT 7: EQUILIBRIUM
Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid - gas and solid - gas equilibria, Henry's
law, general characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp
and Kc) and their significance, significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibria, factors
affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier's
principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of
acids and bases (Arrhenius, Br??nsted - Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid - base
equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale,
common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts
and solubility products, buffer solutions.
UNIT 8: REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for
assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar
conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch's law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells - Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode
potentials including standard electrode potential, half - cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell
and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and
Gibbs' energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.
UNIT 9 : CHEMICAL KINETICS
Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration,
temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of
reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order
reactions, their characteristics and half - lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions -Arrhenius
theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions
(no derivation).
UNIT-10 : SURFACE CHEMISTRY
Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption
of gases on solids - Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Colloidal state - distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions,
classification of colloids - lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated
colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids -Tyndall effect, Brownian movement,
electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.
UNIT 11: CLASSIFICATON OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES
Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic
trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain
enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.
UNIT 12: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF METALS
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of
metals - concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special
reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles
involved in the extraction of metals.
UNIT 13: HYDROGEN
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen;
Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and
uses of hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen as a fuel.
UNIT 14: S - BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)
Group - 1 and 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical
properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal
relationships.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds - sodium carbonate and sodium
hydroxide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance
of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
UNIT 15: P - BLOCK ELEMENTS
Group - 13 to Group 18 Elements
General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical
properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first
element in each group.
Groupwise study of the p - block elements
Group - 13
Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; properties of boric acid, diborane, boron
trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group - 14
Allotropes of carbon, tendency for catenation; Structure & properties of silicates, and
zeolites.
Group - 15
Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus;
Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus
halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus.
Group - 16
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur;
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial
preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group - 17
Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen
halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Group -18
Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of
xenon.
UNIT 16: d - and f - BLOCK ELEMENTS
Transition Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in
properties of the first row transition elements - physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation
states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation,
interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2 Cr2 O7 and
KMnO4.
Inner Transition Elements
Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid
contraction.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
UNIT 17: CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS
Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner's theory; ligands, co-ordination number,
denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism;
Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic
properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals
and in biological systems).
UNIT 18: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
Environmental pollution - Atmospheric, water and soil.
Atmospheric pollution - Tropospheric and Stratospheric
Tropospheric pollutants - Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur,
hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global
warming; Acid rain;
Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and
prevention.
Stratospheric pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer - its
mechanism and effects.
Water Pollution - Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and
chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
Soil pollution - Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides), their
harmful effects and prevention.
Strategies to control environmental pollution.
UNIT 19: PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Purification - Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography -
principles and their applications.
Qualitative analysis - Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) - Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens,
sulphur, phosphorus.
Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic
quantitative analysis.
UNIT 20: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p); Classification of
organic compounds based on functional groups: - C = C - , - C h C - and those containing
halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism - structural and
stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)
Covalent bond fission - Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions;
stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond
- Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
UNIT 21: HYDROCARBONS
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and
reactions.
Alkanes - Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections(of ethane);
Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Alkenes - Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen,
halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff's and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and
polymerization.
Alkynes - Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides;
Polymerization.
Aromatic hydrocarbons- Nomenclature, benzene- structure and aromaticity;
Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel - Craft's alkylation and
acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene.
UNIT 22: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING HALOGENS
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of
substitution reactions.
Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform & iodoform.
UNIT 23: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and
sulphonation, Reimer - Tiemann reaction.
Ethers: Structure.
Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group;Nucleophilic addition to >C=O
group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as - Nucleophilic
addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives),
Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of - hydrogen,
aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between
aldehydes and Ketones.
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
UNIT 24: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of
primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
UNIT 25: POLYMERS
General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerizationaddition
and condensation, copolymerization; Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization;
some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses - polythene, nylon,
polyester and bakelite.
UNIT 26: BIOMOLECULES
General introduction and importance of biomolecules.
CARBOHYDRATES - Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and
fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose and maltose).
PROTEINS - Elementary Idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides;
Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation
of proteins, enzymes.
VITAMINS - Classification and functions.
NUCLEIC ACIDS - Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.
UNIT 27: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE
Chemicals in medicines - Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins- their meaning and
common examples.
Chemicals in food- Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents- common examples.
Cleansing agents - Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.


SECTION- C MATHEMATICS


UNIT 1 : SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS:
Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic
properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations, functions;. one-one,
into and onto functions, composition of functions.
UNIT 2 : COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS:
Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form
a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers,
modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex
number, triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their
solutions. Relation between roots and co-efficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic
equations with given roots.
UNIT 3 : MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS:
Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and
three. Properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using
determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and
elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in
two or three variables using determinants and matrices.
UNIT 4 : PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS:
Fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as
selection, Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r), simple applications.
UNIT 5 : MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION:
Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications.
UNIT 6 : BINOMIAL THEOREM AND ITS SIMPLE APPLICATIONS:
Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term, properties of
Binomial coefficients and simple applications.
UNIT 7 : SEQUENCES AND SERIES:
Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two
given numbers. Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n terms of special series: S n, S n2,
Sn3. Arithmetico - Geometric progression.
UNIT 8 : LIMIT, CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY:
Real-valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic
and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity
and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two
functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential,
composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean
Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonicincreasing
and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable,
tangents and normals.
UNIT 9 : INTEGRAL CALCULUS:
Integral as an anti - derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric,
exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions.
Integration using trigonometric identities.
Evaluation of simple integrals of the type
Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Properties of definite integrals.
Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in
standard form.
UNIT 10: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS:
Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations.
Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of
homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type: dy+ p (x) y = q (x) dx
UNIT 11: CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY:
Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates 10 in a plane, distance formula, section formula,
locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines,
intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.
Straight lines
Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines,
conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and
external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and
circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of
two lines.
Circles, conic sections
Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and
centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a
line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle,
equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and
hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.
UNIT 12: THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY:
Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and
direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines.
Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane
in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.
UNIT 13: VECTOR ALGEBRA:
Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and
three dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product.
UNIT 14: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY:
Measures of Dispersion: Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data
calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.
Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability,
Baye's theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial
distribution.
UNIT 15: TRIGONOMETRY:
Trigonometrical identities and equations. Trigonometrical functions. Inverse trigonometrical
functions and their properties. Heights and Distances.
UNIT 16: MATHEMATICAL REASONING:
Statements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding of
tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositive.


Section D: BIOLOGY


Unit : 1 Diversity in Living World
Biology - its meaning and relevance to mankind
What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids (Botanical gardens, herbaria, museums,
zoological parks); Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.
Introductory classification of living organisms (Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom
system); Major groups of each kingdom alongwith their salient features (Monera, including
Archaebacteria and Cyanobacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia); Viruses; Lichens
Plant kingdom - Salient features of major groups (Algae to Angiosperms);
Animal kingdom - Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class
level.
Unit : 2
Unit : 3
Unit : 4
Unit : 5
Cell : The Unit of Life ; Structure and Function
Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus/Dictyosome,
Lysosomes, Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella;
Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.
Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal
cells. Cell cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.
Biomolecules - Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.
Enzymes - Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.
Genetics and Evolution
Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete
dominance; Co-dominance; Complementary genes; Multiple alleles;
Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of hemophilia and blood groups in humans.
DNA -its organization and replication; Transcription and Translation; Gene expression and
regulation; DNA fingerprinting.
Theories and evidences of evolution, including modern Darwinism.
Structure and Function - Plants
Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants;
Anatomy and function of root, stem(including modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower
(including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types
of fruit; Secondary growth; Absorption and movement of water (including diffusion,osmosis
and water relations of cell) and of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration and
gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal movement.
Mineral nutrition - Macro- and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders;
Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.
Photosynthesis - Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; Various
pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors .
Respiration - Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport
system; Energy relations.
Structure and Function - Animals Tissues;
Elementary knowledge of morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems of
earthworm, cockroach and frog.
Human Physiology - Digestive system - organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system
- organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases. Body fluids and circulation - Blood,
lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery
diseases.
Excretion system - Urine formation, regulation of kidney function
Locomotion and movement - Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.
Control and co-ordination - Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of
neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands;
Mechanism of hormone action.
Unit : 6
Unit : 7
Unit : 8
Unit : 9
Unit : 10
Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants
Asexual methods of reproduction; Sexual Reproduction - Development of male and female
gametophytes; Pollination (Types and agents); Fertilization; Development of embryo,
endosperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and apomixis).
Growth and Movement - Growth phases; Types of growth regulators and their role in seed
dormancy, germination and movement; Apical dominance; Senescence; Abscission; Photoperiodism;
Vernalisation; Various types of movements.
Reproduction and Development in Humans
Male and female reproductive systems; Menstrual cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation;
Implantation; Embryo development; Pregnancy and parturition; Birth control and contraception.
Ecology and Environment
Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.
Ecological levels of organization (organism to biosphere); Characteristics of Species,
Population, Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and Climax.
Ecosystem - Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web;
Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.
Ecological adaptations - Structural and physiological features in plants and animals of aquatic
and desert habitats.
Biodiversity - Meaning, types and conservation strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks
and Sanctuaries)
Environmental Issues - Air and Water Pollution (sources and major pollutants); Global warming
and Climate change; Ozonedepletion; Noise pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of
pollution control (including an idea of bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction of species (Hot
Spots).
Biology and Human Welfare
Animal husbandry - Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries; Major animal diseases and their control.
Pathogens of major communicable diseases of humans caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses,
protozoans and helminths, and their control.
Cancer; AIDS.
Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;
Basic concepts of immunology.
Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop improvement.
Biofertilisers (green manure, symbiotic and free-living nitrogen-fixing microbes, mycorrhizae);
Biopesticides (micro-organisms as biocontrol agents for pests and pathogens); Bioherbicides;
Microorganisms as pathogens of plant diseases with special reference to rust and smut of
wheat, bacterial leaf blight of rice, late blight of potato, bean mosaic, and root - knot of
vegetables.
Bioenergy - Hydrocarbon - rich plants as substitute of fossil fuels.
Biotechnology and its Applications
Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;
Microbial technology in food processing, industrial production (alcohol, acids, enzymes,
antibiotics), sewage treatment and energy generation.
Steps in recombinant DNA technology - restriction enzymes, DNA insertion by vectors and
other methods, regeneration of recombinants.
Applications of R-DNA technology. In human health -Production of Insulin, Vaccines and
Growth hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy. In Industry - Production of expensive
enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses. In Agriculture - GM crops by transfer
of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pest-resistance including Bt crops.


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